1) 1995 UK
a) populated areas with little or no food retail provision
b) areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy foods
2) counts the type and quality of foods available for purchase and the neighborhood residents being impoverished and unable to buy such foods
3) access, or the degree to which individuals live within close proximity to a large supermarket or supercenter offering consumers a wider array of food choices at relatively lower costs
4) urban areas with 10 or fewer (grocery) stores and no stores with more than 20 employees.
Land-use policies that facilitate development of predominantly wealthy and white suburban neighborhoods have altered the distribution of food stores. Where policies and legislation in the form of regulations by government departments separated from republican form of democracy. They are top down rules originating from studies, themselves originating in foreign countries. Tap into the whirling gears and you will hear, "wish I had thought of that." We will be studied as subjects from afar and regulated from on high.
So we see racism as impulse right off the bat. Straight up. Apparently somebody noticed all those lily white neighborhoods out therein the suburbs, those awful suburbs where people set up to avoid inner city crime and pollution have awesome grocery stores that the cities lack, with their fine expensive restaurants that sell only the best of all food. Can you imagine why? How many studies are needed to sort that? And what can government types do to remedy this lopsided situation? White people have it so good, they always did, and people of color always end up with the short end of the stick.
Prevalence of food deserts in poorer neighborhoods is driven by lack of consumer demand as the poor have less money to spend on healthful, nutritious food.
From an economic standpoint, low demand does not justify supply.
Food retailers are also discouraged from opening chains in low-income rural and urban communities because of crime rates, transportation costs and low return of investment.
Furley et al. describes food desert creation as arising where "high competition from large chain supermarkets has created a void."
As a result, the food supply within inner-cities includes less variety, denying some urban residents the benefits of healthful foods at affordable prices. Remaining food retailers in inner-cities are gas stations, convenience stores, tobacco stores, drugstores, and liquor stores. A diet based on foods from these locations consists primarily of processed foods high in calories, sugars, salt, fat, and artificial ingredients.
That prejudicial word "remaining," Furley missed the previous assertion of startups being discouraged. It implies a fixed number leaving cities for suburbs and ignores startups making a studied choices for location. No internal change in this model. Gas stations, convenience stores, tiny grocery stores, bodegas, 7-11 stop and shops will stock whatever is demanded. Liquor stores appear in suburbs too. You will find huge liquor stores smack in the center of cities, in suburbs and beyond in exurbs as well. They and bars are everywhere demand supports them, and that turns out to be everywhere.
Denver is a good example. There is a grocery store across the street that I do wish carried fresh vegetables and meat. But those things do not sell. Turnover is required or fresh food goes off and is wasted. For proper food I must go just a just a little bit further by a few blocks in any direction to find proper grocery stores that are alway packed full. It has nothing to do with transportation. Two very upscale markets within walking distance even for a fellow who does not walk all that well. And excellent sources within brief driving distance, biking distance, cab distance, bus distance, with excellent restaurants as well all available on foot. Food all around. Transportation is not the problem of obesity on supply side of the equation nor the demand side. However poor food choices is. There are also poor food choices supply points dotted all around.
The main factor used to classify a community as a food desert is distance from nutritional food retailers. There is no standard for "inadequate" access or "adequate" access to food.
Residents of food desert areas have no alternative but to utilize private cars, travel several miles on foot, or use public transit to gain access to healthful food. Consumers without cars are dependent on food sources in their closest proximity.
A study by Inagami reveals that the distance traveled to food stores is an independent predictor of BMI. The problem increases in rural food desert areas, where closing the distance to nutritional food access is impossible on foot.
Researchers have determined that distance to food is also psychological
The physical distance from fresh foods determine eating behaviors and preferences for palatable, processed foods. To create a healthy relationship with food, researchers recommend creating a direct connection between fresh produce and consumer. Examples of this include urban farm programs and incorporating healthful foods in schools.
Denver’s ‘food desert’ mirage: the road to health is paved with good intentions
(… ) I sat next to one my students who had her newly mandated healthy federal school lunch in front of her. She wouldn’t touch it. Instead she pulled out a black plastic bag from under the table, put her finger in front of her mouth, told me not to tell, and showed me her Hot Cheetos. Later, she took her banana from the school lunch and smashed it against the stairs.